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National Infection Prevention and Control Manual

National Infection Prevention and Control Manual

A-Z Pathogens

The A-Z is under development and provides disease specific guidance for infectious agents for NHSScotland,

The A-Z is being developed to provide a description of pathogen, incubation period and infectivity along with transmission routes, notifiable status and alert organisms for diseases associated with the pathogen.   Guidance and supporting materials for the disease/pathogen are also included giving the current Scottish, UK and International guidance to be followed in that order.

Appendix 11 of the NIPCM can be used alongside the A-Z and includes additional information including optimal patient placement and respiratory and facial protection for a range of pathogens.

Download print quality poster (A3 size) PDF document

 

 

A

Acinetobacter baumanii

An environmental organism that typically causes infection in immunocompromised hosts, may be transmitted from an environmental point source via droplets or aerosols and may spread via either direct (person to person) or indirect (contaminated medical devices or surfaces) contact.

Disease : Pneumonia, bacteraemia, skin and soft tissue infections

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Adenovirus

Adenoviruses are members of the family of viruses Adenoviridae. Infections commonly affect the respiratory system; but may also cause various other illnesses and presentations, including cold-like symptoms, sore throat, bronchitis, pneumonia, diarrhea, and conjunctivitis.

Incubation Period :

For respiratory infection this is 2-14 days, with symptoms usually lasting 3-5 days. For Adenoviral conjunctivitis this is from 4 to 12 days, with symptoms lasting 4 to 6 weeks.

Period of Infectivity :

The virus is shed during the initial 2 weeks of symptoms with Infectious particles able to survive on fomites for up to 2 months. Adenovirus infection can occur in any age group, but infants and immunocompromised individuals are more likely than others to develop severe illness from adenoviruses.

Disease : Upper +/- lower respiratory tract infection

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Droplet

Disease : Conjunctivitis

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : No
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Contact

Guidance and supporting materials


 

Anthrax

See Bacillus anthracis

Aspergillus spp

Aspergillus spp. a common fungi that can be found in environment. Aspergillus fungi can often be found around plants and trees, including rotting leaves and compost; but also in air conditioning and heating systems, insulation material or dust. 

It causes a disease called aspergillosis. Symptoms of aspergillosis vary, depending on the type and the part of the body that's affected. Aspergillosis is not infectious and cannot be transmitted from person to person.

Transmission of aspergillosis can occur if an individual inhales tiny particles of the aspergillus fungi that hang in the air when the environment becomes disturbed.

Spore levels are increased during hospital building or renovation activities, with severely immunocompromised patients more at risk of developing aspergillosis.

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is the most serious type and usually only affects those who are immunocompromised. Symptoms often include cough, chest pain or breathlessness.

 

Incubation Period :

Varies widely, from days to months.

Disease : Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Contact / Airborne

Guidance and supporting materials

Scottish

Aspergillus Information for Staff
http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/haiic/ic/resourcedetail.aspx?id=1591

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B

Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)

Anthrax is usually a disease of herbivorous mammals and is caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax is contracted through environmental exposure and cannot be transmitted from person to person. 

In humans, anthrax can be contracted through direct or indirect contact with infected animals, including handling meat, hides, hair and wool. There are also concerns about the use of anthrax as a bioterrorism agent.

The symptoms of anthrax depend on route of infection and take four main forms: Inhalation, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and injection.

  • Inhalation anthrax can occur when a person inhales spores that are in the air (aerosolized) during the industrial processing of contaminated materials, such as wool, hides, or hair.
  • Cutaneous anthrax can occur when workers who handle contaminated animal products get spores in a cut or scrape on their skin.
  • Injection anthrax is a novel form of infection seen in heroin users and most likely contracted from using heroin contaminated with anthrax spores.

All types of anthrax have the potential, if untreated, to spread throughout the body and cause severe illness and even death.

Symptoms may include:

  • Cutaneous: (>90% cases) entry through a skin lesion leads to the development initially of a pimple which, within two to three days, develops to form a dry, black firmly adherent scab from two to several cm in diameter across. The lesion rarely causes much pain, but there is nearly always considerable oedema which may spread a long way from the site of the lesion and may take up to six weeks to resolve.
  • Pulmonary – Following inhalation of spores, time to onset of symptoms is dependent on the number of spores inhaled. Symptoms may include mild pyrexia and malaise lasting a few days; followed by a flu-like illness, leading quickly to shock, collapse and death.
  • Intestinal – entry is through ingestion of spores and leads to severe gastrointestinal disease with nausea, vomiting, anorexia and fever leading to shock, collapse and death.
  • Injection: Fever and chills, small blisters/ bumps at the injection site which change to a painless skin sore with a black centre, swelling around the sore often accompanied with abscesses at the injection site.

Incubation Period :

Cutaneous: One to 7 days (rarely up to 7 weeks)
Pulmonary: One to 7 days (usually 48 hours)*
Intestinal: One to 7 days.

Disease : Anthrax

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Contact / Airborne

Guidance and supporting materials

Scottish

HPS Anthrax web page http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/giz/anthrax.aspx

Guidelines for the public health management of tetanus, botulism or anthrax among people who use drugs, 2017
http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/giz/resourcedetail.aspx?id=3190

UK

Anthrax: Guidance, data and analysis
https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/anthrax-guidance-data-and-analysis

Anthrax: the green book, chapter 13
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/anthrax-the-green-book-chapter-13

International

Guidelines for the surveillance and control of anthrax in humans and animals
http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/anthrax/WHO_EMC_ZDI_98_6/en/

Bacillus cereus

B. cereus in particular is a frequently recognised cause of toxin-induced acute gastroenteritis, however this genus may also cause sepsis, pneumonia, endocarditis, central nervous system (CNS) and ocular infections.

Symptoms often include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea.

Bacillus cereus is known to cause bacteraemia in immunocompromised individuals.

B. cereus cannot be transmitted from person to person; it is transmitted by contaminated cooked foods, especially rice, pastas and vegetables, as well as raw milk and meat products.

Airborne dissemination of the organisms from environmental sources is considered to further facilitate contamination, environmental sources include: soil, sediments, vegetation.

Dust and contaminated laundry have been implicated in the healthcare environment. The risk of person-to-person transmission is typically considered to be low.

 

Incubation Period :

1-24 hours.

Disease : Gastroenteritis

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : No
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Contact / Airborne

Guidance and supporting materials

Bacillus spp.

Bacillus spp are spore forming bacteria, ubiquitous in the environment.  B cereus and Bacillus anthracis are two of the most hazardous to human health. 

Disease : Gastroenteritis, sepsis, pneumonia, endocarditis, central nervous system (CNS) and ocular infections

Main route of transmission :

Guidance and supporting materials

Body Lice

Body lice are parasitic insects that live on clothing and bedding used by an infested person. Body lice frequently lay their eggs on or near the seams of clothing. Body lice must feed on blood and usually only move to the skin to feed. Body lice can also spread diseases such as epidemic typhus, trench fever, and louse-borne relapsing fever.

They spread rapidly under crowded living conditions where hygiene is poor. Body lice are spread through direct physical contact with a person who has body lice or through contact with articles such as clothing, beds, bed linens, or towels that have been in contact with an infested person.

As long as an individual remain infested they can infect others, treatment can take the form of improved hygiene and/or treatment with a pediculicide.

Incubation Period :

Lice eggs (nits) hatch within 1 to 2 weeks after they're laid. After hatching, the remaining shell looks white or clear and stays firmly attached to the hair shaft.

Disease : Body Lice

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : No
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Contact
Bordetella pertussis (Whooping cough)

Pertussis is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. The initial symptoms (catarrhal stage) include: runny nose, fever, cough and apnea (in babies). Later symptoms (paroxysmal stage) include: paroxysms of many rapid coughs in children this is followed by a high-pitched "whoop", often accompanied with vomiting and exhaustion after coughing fits.

Adults do not exhibit the ‘whoop’ but present with a persistent cough which can last several weeks and may act as a reservoir for B. pertussis during this period. Unvaccinated children under 2 years of age are most at risk of complications; for vaccination information see link below.

Incubation Period :

Between 4–21 days

Period of Infectivity :

Pertussis is highly communicable. Individuals with pertussis are most infectious during the catarrhal period and the first 2 weeks after cough onset (i.e., approximately 21 days). Antibiotic therapy will shorten the period of infectivity.

Disease : Pertussis/Whooping Cough

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Droplet

Guidance and supporting materials

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C

Campylobacter

Campylobacter are genus of bacteria that commonly cause food poisoning associated with raw or undercooked meat in particular poultry; the two most common species implicated in human disease are C. jejuni and C. coli. Symptoms can include diarrhoea (sometimes bloody), nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, malaise and fever, with symptoms lasting from 2-10 days. Sequelae can include Guillain-Barré syndrome.

Incubation Period :

Usually 1 to 5 days, but can range up to 11 days

Period of Infectivity :

While symptomatic and for a further 48 hours after the cessation of symptoms.

Period of Exclusion: Individuals should be considered infective for 48 hours after cessation of symptoms.

Disease : Campylobacter Gastroenteritis

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : No
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Guidance and supporting materials

Main route of transmission: Contact/ Foodborne*

*This is rarely reported in the care environment where the main route of transmission is through contact

Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE)

Disease : Colonisation, device associated infections - urinary tract infection, catheter associated bacteraemia

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Contact

Guidance and supporting materials

Scottish

Patient Screening for Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) - Leaflets for Healthcare Workers and Patients http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/guidelines/detail.aspx?id=1661

Toolkit for the early detection, management and control of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Scottish Acute Settings http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/guidelines/detail.aspx?id=478

 

International

CRE Toolkit
http://www.cdc.gov/hai/organisms/cre/cre-toolkit/index.html

Chickenpox

See Varicella virus

Chlamydia pneumoniae

Disease : Pneumonia

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : No
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Droplet
Clostridium difficile (CDI)

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of infectious diarrhoea due to the spore-forming bacterium, Clostridium difficile. It is predominantly healthcare associated and accounts for about 20% of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Disease is mediated by the production of toxins, and symptoms include watery diarrhoea, fever, nausea, and abdominal pain, which may lead to serious complications including pseudomembranous colitis, toxic megacolon, and death. Treatment with antibiotics or invasive surgical procedures, which disturb the normal intestinal flora, may lead to overgrowth of C. difficile, resulting in either asymptomatic colonisation or infection. Those at most risk of developing CDI include elderly people and immunocompromised patients. A small proportion of healthy adults may carry C. difficile as part of the normal gut flora.

Incubation Period :

The precise incubation period is not well defined. C. difficile is transmitted via spores that are picked up from the environment either by direct contact with an infected (or colonised) person or by indirect contact with a contaminated surface.

Period of Infectivity :

While symptomatic and as a general principle until at least 48 hours after cessation of symptoms. Note: Shedding of the virus can occur for much longer durations in persons that are no longer symptomatic.

Exclusion period: Individuals should be considered infective for 48 hours after cessation of symptoms.

Disease : Clostridium difficile infection

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Contact

Guidance and supporting materials

Scottish

Information leaflets

Tools

Surveillance

 

Coronavirus

Disease : Acute respiratory syndrome (Non-SARSCoV)

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : No
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Droplet

Guidance and supporting materials

Scottish

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Disease : Diphtheria - Cutaneous

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Contact
Corynebacterium ulcerans

Disease : Diphtheria - Pharyngeal toxigenic strains

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Droplet
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D

No Pathogens

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E

Enterovirus D68

Disease : Mild to moderate upper respiratory tract infections, can cause severe respiratory illness and rarely acute flaccid myelitis (AFM)

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Droplet

Guidance and supporting materials

Escherichia coli O157 (STEC)

Escherichia coli O157, also known as Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC, previously known as verotoxigenic or VTEC), is a serogroup of the family of bacteriaEscherichia coli. STEC infection is a relatively rare cause of gastrointestinal illness. E. coli O157 is found in the gut and faeces of many animals, particularly cattle.

Symptoms can range from mild gastroenteritis through to severe bloody diarrhoea and in rare cases develop serious conditions including haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura (TTP). Children and the elderly are most at risk of developing serious complications.

Incubation Period :

Usually 3-4 days, but can range from 1 to 14 days.

Period of Infectivity :

Symptoms can last up 14 days. Transmission from person-to-person is via the contact (faecal oral) route: from any food, water, or environmental source contaminated by the excreta of an animal or human case (including asymptomatic cases).

Period of Exclusion:individuals should be considered infective for 48 hours after cessation of symptoms, in addition to asymptomatic cases. Some individuals require exclusion and microbiological clearance, see additional guidance: http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/resourcedocument.aspx?id=1172

Disease : Escherichia coli Gastroenteritis

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Guidance and supporting materials

Main route of transmission: Contact (faecal oral) / Foodborne*

*This is rarely reported in the care environment where the main route of transmission is through contact

Scotland

Guidance for the Public Health Management of Infection with Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC)

http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/resourcedocument.aspx?id=1170

 

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F

No Pathogens

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G

No Pathogens

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H

Haemophilus influenzae type b

Disease : Epiglottitis

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : No
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Droplet

Disease : Meningitis

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : No
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Droplet

Guidance and supporting materials

UK

Hepatitis A virus

Disease : Hepatitis

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : No
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Contact

Guidance and supporting materials

Hepatitis E

Disease : Hepatitis E

Main route of transmission :

Guidance and supporting materials

UK

Hepatitis E, symptoms, transmission, prevention and treatment
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/hepatitis-e-symptoms-transmission-prevention-treatment

Herpes zoster (varicella zoster)

Disease : Shingles (vesicle fluid)

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Contact

Disease : Shingles (lesions in the respiratory tract)

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Droplet / Airborne

Guidance and supporting materials

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I

Influenza virus (Endemic strains)

Disease : Influenza

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Droplet

Guidance and supporting materials

Scottish

Cribcard for influenza
http://www.documents.hps.scot.nhs.uk/hai/infection-control/toolkits/flu-crib-card-2015-09.pdf

Influenza Outbreak control measure trigger tool for hospitals
http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/haiic/ic/resourcedetail.aspx?id=1596

Influenza Outbreak Trigger tool for Care homes
http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/haiic/ic/resourcedetail.aspx?id=1684

Guidance on outbreaks of Influenza in Care Homes and Hospitals (Poster)
http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/haiic/ic/resourcedetail.aspx?id=1595

Interim infection control precautions to minimise transmission of respiratory tract infections (RTIs)
http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/resp/resourcedetail.aspx?id=1586

UK Influenza Pandemic Preparedness Strategy
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/11/e3135711/link

UK

Influenza: the green book, chapter 19
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/influenza-the-green-book-chapter-19

 

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J

No Pathogens

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K

No Pathogens

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L

Legionella

Disease : Legionnaire's disease, legionellosis, pontiac fever

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

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M

Measles virus

Disease : Measles (rubeola)

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Droplet / Airborne

Guidance and supporting materials

Scottish

Guideline for the control of measles incidents and outbreak in Scotland, 2014
http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/guidelines/detail.aspx?id=196

UK

Measles: symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/measles-symptoms-diagnosis-complications-treatment

Meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Disease : Infection. Colonisation (either swab positive or positive as per clinical risk assessment criteria)

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Contact
Mumps virus

Disease : Mumps (infectious parotitis)

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Droplet

Guidance and supporting materials

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Disease : Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Contact

Disease : Pulmonary or laryngeal disease Tuberculosis

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Airborne

Guidance and supporting materials

Scottish

Tuberculosis:Clinical diagnosis and management of tuberculosis, and measures for its prevention and control in Scotland http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/resp/guidelinedetail.aspx?id=40817

A TB Action plan for Scotland
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/03/18095603/0

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Disease : Pneumonia

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : No
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Droplet
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N

Neisseria meningitides

Disease : Meningitis - meningococcal (or presentation of clinical meningitis of unknown origin)

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Droplet
Norovirus (winter vomiting disease, norwalk-like viruses)

Norovirus, also known as ‘winter vomiting disease’, belongs to the Caliciviridae family of viruses and is a common gastrointestinal infection.

Symptoms include acute onset of non-bloody watery diarrhoea and / or vomiting, often accompanied with abdominal cramps, myalgia, headache, malaise and low grade fever. Noroviruses are highly infectious and transmitted easily from person to person, contaminated food or water or by contact with contaminated surfaces or objects.

Outbreaks are common in semi-enclosed areas such as hospitals, care homes, educational establishments and prisons due to population proximity. Although norovirus gastroenteritis is generally mild and of short duration, the illness can be severe among vulnerable population groups such as young children and the elderly.

Incubation Period :

Typically between 12-48 hours

Period of Infectivity :

Whilst individuals are symptomatic and for a further 48 hours after the cessation of symptoms. Prolonged shedding of the virus can occur in persons that are immunocompromised and young children.

Exclusion Period: Individuals should be considered infective for 48 hours after cessation of symptoms.

Disease : Norovirus gastroenteritis

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Contact

Guidance and supporting materials

Scottish

General information to prepare for and manage norovirus in care settings
http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/haiic/ic/resourcedetail.aspx?id=165

Norovirus Tracker: monthly and seasonal
http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/haiic/ic/resourcedetail.aspx?id=1685

Guidance on outbreaks of norovirus in care homes poster
http://www.documents.hps.scot.nhs.uk/hai/infection-control/norovirus/noro-poster-care-home-2015.pdf

Norovirus: Information for patients and their relatives and carers
http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/haiic/ic/resourcedetail.aspx?id=596

The Identification and Management of Outbreaks of Norovirus Infection in Tourists and Leisure Industry Settings. Guide for NHS boards and local authorities.
http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/enviro/resourcedetail.aspx?id
=889

Norovirus Campaign materials
http://www.healthscotland.com/resources/campaigns/norovirus.aspx

Stay at home: Norovirus the winter vomiting bug. Keep it to yourself. Advice for everyone
http://www.healthscotland.com/documents/24074.aspx

Novel coronavirus

Disease : Severe respiratory illness with/out gastroenteritis, pneumonia

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Airborne

Guidance and supporting materials

Main route of transmission may be unknown, assume airborne until further information available.

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O

No Pathogens

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P

Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) -positive Staphylococcus aureus

Disease : Skin and soft tissues infection, necrotising pneumonia, necrotising fasciitis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis and pyomyositis, purpura fulminans

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Contact
Parainfluenza virus

Disease : Upper +/- lower respiratory tract infection

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Droplet
Parvovirus B19 - (Erythema infectiosum - Erythrovirus B19)

Disease : Slapped cheek syndrome

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : No
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Droplet
Pneumocystis jirovecii

Disease : Pneumonia

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Guidance and supporting materials

Scottish

PcP: Patient information leaflet
http://www.hps.scot.nhs.uk/pubs/detail.aspx?id=3075

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Disease : Pneumonia, bacteraemia, wound or surgical infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, conjunctivitis in neonates

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

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Q

No Pathogens

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R

Rabies virus

The rabies virus is a member of the family of Rhabdoviridae. The most common mode for rabies transmission is from virus-laden saliva of an infected animal following an animal bite or scratch (in particular dogs) has also been found in bats.  

The onset of illness is insidious. Early symptoms may include paraesthesiae around the site of the wound, fever, headache and malaise. The disease may then present with hydrophobia, hallucinations and maniacal behaviour progressing to paralysis and coma, or as an ascending flaccid paralysis and sensory disturbance. Rabies is almost always fatal, death resulting from respiratory paralysis. Early intervention, including vaccination, is essential to prevent progression to later stages of infection which include acute nervous system dysfunction with muscle weakness, frothing saliva, general paralysis, convulsions and latterly death.

Incubation Period :

Highly variable: The incubation period for rabies depends upon the size of the inoculum and the distance of the inoculum from the victim’s central nervous system. The incubation period has been reported to be as short as a few days, and as long as a few years

Period of Infectivity :

Normally 3 to 7 days, before onset of clinical signs and throughout the course of the disease.

Disease : Rabies

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : No
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Contact

Guidance and supporting materials

Respiratory synctial virus (RSV)

Disease : Upper +/- lower respiratory tract infection

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Droplet

Guidance and supporting materials

Rhinovirus

Disease : Upper +/- lower respiratory tract infection

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : No
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Droplet
Rotavirus

Disease : Gastroenteritis

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Contact / Droplet

Guidance and supporting materials

Rubella virus

Disease : German measles

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Droplet

Guidance and supporting materials

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S

Salmonella (non-typhoidal)

Salmonella spp. is a ubiquitous bacterium of which more than 2000 serotypes have been identified. Salmonella can cause food poisoning with most disease caused by two serotypes, S. Enteritidis and S.Typhimurium. Transmission occurs by the ingestion of contaminated food (most commonly poultry, red meat, raw eggs and dairy products and salad products) or via faecal contamination from an infected person or animal. Symptoms include diarrhoea, stomach cramps and sometimes vomiting and fever.

Incubation Period :

12 - 72 hours

Period of Infectivity :

4–7 days

Exclusion period:Whilst symptomatic and 48 hours after cessation of symptoms
Serratia marcescens

Disease : Pneumonia, bacteraemia, urinary tract infections, wound infections

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Staphylococcus aureus (Enterotoxigenic)

Disease : Scalded skin syndrome

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Contact
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Disease : Bacteraemia, respiratory infections, urinary infections and surgical-site infections

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Disease : Pneumonia Meningitis

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : No
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Droplet

Disease : Bacteraemia, meningitis, wound ie. blood, cerebrospinal fluid or other normally sterile site

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : No
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Contact
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Strep)

Disease : Respiratory

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Droplet

Disease : Bacteraemia meningitis, wound i.e blood, cerebrospinal fluid or other normally sterile site

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Contact
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T

No Pathogens

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U

No Pathogens

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V

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE)

Disease : Colonisation, urinary tract infection, bacteraemia, wound and surgical site infections

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : No

Main route of transmission :

Contact
Varicella virus

Disease : Chickenpox

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Droplet / Airborne

Guidance and supporting materials

Vero cytoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC)

Disease : Gastroeneteritis, haemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura

Notifiable

  • On HPS Alert organisms list : Yes
  • Notifiable under Public Health Act 2008 : Yes

Main route of transmission :

Contact
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W

Whooping cough

See Bortedella pertussis

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X

No Pathogens

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Y

No Pathogens

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Z

No Pathogens

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Footnotes

A-Z of Pathogens